Urban Ecology

Cities are urban ecosystems.

Like natural ecosystems, they bring in energy and materials and process them through their components as they flow through the system. Urban ecosystems include concentrations of people and the built environment as well as the productive ecosystems generating the energy and matter required to sustain the whole.

Only if the urban system is ecologically complete does it have a chance of becoming self-reliant and sustainable.

Urban Eco-System seen through the 15 dimensions of the IEFS